club convergence

Provincial income convergence clubs in Indonesia: Identification and conditioning factors

This study evaluates the regional convergence hypothesis at the provincial level during the recent deindustrialization period 2001–2017 of Indonesia.

Regional income disparities, distributional convergence, and spatial effects: Evidence from Indonesian regions 2010–2017

Using a novel dataset, we analysis the spatio-temporal dynamics of income per capita across 34 provinces and 514 districts in Indonesia over the 2010–2017 period.

Regional income disparities and convergence clubs in Indonesia: New district-level evidence

By applying a non-linear dynamic factor model, this article tests the club convergence hypothesis using a novel dataset of income at the district level. The results show significant five convergence clubs.